Households
 
Google
 
Map Gallery
 
Memoirs
 
 
Dedication

Your Comments

Acknowledgements


© Douglas Hykle
2006-2012
print page 

Event Timeline

Year
Month /
Day
Event
Source
Page

Ancient History
1414
 
First mention of Tovste, in old chronicles
71
1427
  Deed of Lithuanian Prince Vitovt of Augustio, in which it is written that he presents to his vassal the village of Pecherna on the Dniester River in Czerwonogrod “volost”. On 30 September 1427 Ivan Pinkovich became the owner of Tovste  
1434
 
Beginning of Polish domination of the land encompassing Tovste
1449
 
Tovste mentioned in the literature for the first time as “Tluste”
17
15th c.
 
First mention of a defensive castle in Tluste
 

1500s
1548
  Tovste/Tluste attains the status of “settlement” and the Magdeburg right  
1549
 
King Zygmunta Augusta grants Marcin Chodorowski, (nobleman, major landowner of Tluste) a title to collect customs duties in the Tluste area for purposes of repairing bridges, roads
16th c.
  Construction of the stone defensive castle  
1579
  First written mention of the Khmelnytskyy homestead in Tovste/Tluste  
1580
  Khmelnytskyy receives a title from Polish King Stefan Batoriy to hold annual and weekly markets in Tovste/Tluste  
1594
  Royal historian V. Kokhovsty writes that Mykhailo Khmelnytskyy was turned out of Tovste because of a crime against Poland  

1600s
1620
  Mykhailo Khmelnytskyy and his son Bogdan, together with Hetman Stanislav Zholkevskyy, take part in battle near Tsetsor against Turkish - Tatar troops  
1621 -22
  Bogdan Khmelnytskyy in Turkish captivity  
1627
 

Mykhailo Khmelnytskyy takes part in an uprising under the leadership of Taras Fedorovych

 
1648 -54
  Ukrainian uprising against Poland; Tluste was one of seven principal uprising centres between 1648-49  
1672 -1772
  Tluste and surrounding region under Turkish (1672-83), then renewed Polish (1683-1772) domination for a total of 100 years  
ca. 1698
 
Israel ben Eliezer reportedly born in Okopy; later works as a teacher in Tluste
63-4
233
17th c.
  Construction of the wooden synagogue  

1700s
1717
 
Roman-Catholic parish is founded in Tluste
35
64
1734-
 
While in Tluste, Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer becomes known as the Ba’al Shem Tov (“Besht”)
  
1740
-60
 
The Besht moves to Miedzyboz (population 5000; one-third Jews) – a thriving commercial centre, one of largest towns in Ukraine
66
1741
 
Tluste suffers at the hands of passing Muscovite troops
64
1764
 
Census: 251 Jews living in Tluste
135
1772
-1914
 
Austrian “Kingdom of Galacia” created out of former Polish territory; laterly the Austro-Hungarian Empire
 
  
1779
 
The defensive castle of Tluste is rebuilt as the Roman Catholic church, and its forts are used as store houses for the 'Reitschule'
1785
 
Census: 163 families living in Tluste
1787
  First mention of architectural monument of classic style  

1800s
1816
 
Tluste is transferred from Zalishchyky jurisdiction to that of Chortkiv (until 1857)
 
1852
 
First state trivial (public) school opens in Tluste
36
1854
Construction of “King's Road” from Chortkiv to Tluste  
1856
Realisation of stone road from Buchach - Tluste - Zalischyky  
1857
 
Following administrative reform, Tluste comes once again under Zalishchyky administration
  
1870
 
174 families living in Tluste
41
1871
 
Severe flooding of Dniester River at Zalishchyky
 
1880
 
Tluste has 3285 inhabitants: 2225 Jews, 697 Greek Catholics (Ukrainian), and 363 Roman Catholics (Poles)
 
1889
 
Closure of markets, shops, and some schools in Tluste and elsewhere in the midst of a smallpox outbreak
 173 
1890
 
Tluste central post office gets first telephone
42
1895
October
Plans for construction of railway from Chortkiv to Zalischyky, through Tluste, drawn up by Austrian engineers in Vienna
41
1896
-1897
 
Construction of railway station in Tluste
41
late 19th
- beg. 20th century
Transformation of former fort of 16th century Tovste castle in to “Gwiazda” of Prince Geronim Lyudomyrskyy  

1900-1919
1900
 
Tluste has 3,778 inhabitants: 2,213 Jews, 1,111 Greek Catholics (Ukrainian), and 454 Roman Catholics (Poles)
 
1901
 
Construction of railway through Tluste completed
41
1902
“Prosvita” reading room established  
1902
-04
Reconstruction of Roman Catholic Church of St. Anne  
1912
 
Demolition of wooden Greek Catholic church dating from 1730; construction of new Church of St. Mykhail set to begin (which would take 30 years to complete)
45
1914
August
Beginning of World War I
 
1914
Second half
First Russian soldiers enter Tluste; the town comes under Russian occupation
48
1914
August
Destruction of Tluste's 18th century town hall  
1914
Autumn
Russians capture Zalishchyky
  
1915
17 April
Jews of Zalishchyky expelled
 
1915
Summer
Cholera-infected soldiers are brought to Tluste; locals infected; “cholera cemetery” created in Jewish quarter
51
1915
September
Use of bacteriological weapons on the front line along the Dniester River; Austrian-German armies force the Russians to leave Tluste
52
1916
June
Russian troops return to Tluste; and remain until July 1917
52
1917
July
Tluste once again under Austrian-Hungarian control  
1918
31 October
Ukrainian political leaders declare “Western Ukrainian National Republic”
 
 
1918
1 November
Ukrainian forces occupy Lvov (later recaptured by Polish forces on or about 21-22 November 1918)
 
 
1918
3 November
After Austria’s defeat in WWI, Austria transfers political control to Ukrainian Committee in Lvov; armed conflict begins within days between Poles and Ukrainians over rival claims to territory
 
 
1919
25 June
Decision of Allied Supreme Council authorizing Polish armed forces (at war with Soviet Union) to extend operations eastward to the river Zbrucz
4
65
1919
July
Polish forces regain control over whole of Galicia
 
 

1920s
1920
October
Poland makes truce with Soviet Union
 
 
1921
18 March
Treaty of Riga (between Poland, Russia and Ukraine); Poland retains Galicia and Tluste returns once again to Polish control
6
1923
15 March
Conference of Ambassadors recognizes the frontiers of Poland as including the eastern part of Galicia, whilst confirming that that territory’s “ethnographical conditions necessitate an autonomous regime”
74
1925
1 December
Tluste public school has 469 children and 11 teachers
56
1927
 
Severe flooding of Dniester River at Zalishchyky
 
1927
 
Construction on Greek Catholic church reaches height of about 10 m
  

1930s
1930
 
Population of Tluste and neighbouring villages peaks at around 8,200 inhabitants: one-half Greek Catholic (Ukrainian); one-third Jews; and one-fifth Roman Catholic (Poles)
 
1930
 
Anton Navolskyy (bishop) arrives in Tluste
58
1930
28 December
Declarations of parents submitted demanding introduction of Ukrainian as language of instruction in Tluste schools
 
1930
-32
 
Zalishchyky’s rise to prominence as resort area
 
1939
 
Last known census of Tluste Jews: 1,196 citizens
 
1939
Construction of Greek-Catholic Church of St. Mykhail is finally completed, after three decades  
1939
1 September 
War breaks out; nearby Horodenka is bombed
 
1939
17 September
Citing the disintegration of the Polish State and Government, Soviet Union announces its intention to occupy Western Ukraine; in this month, the Soviets capture Zalishchyky
10
-11
75
1939
28 September
Ribbentrop-Molotov Agreement between Germany and Soviet Union, formalising de facto incorporation of eastern Galicia into Soviet territory
10
75
1939
17 August
Soviet rule is established
64
1939
17 September
Poland falls, Soviets occupy Horodenka (schools reopen in a few weeks, under Russian tutelage)
 
1939
Tluste becomes a district centre  

1940-41
1940
January 
Tluste loses status as town (for first time since 1548)
64
1940
February
Local underground organisation of young Ukrainian nationalists is formed
64-5
1940
February
First collective farm established
64
1941
January - June
30 Tluste students are arrested, shot or murdered by the Soviet KGB  
1941
Creation of the “Sich” organisation in Tluste  
1941
22 June
Germany attacks Soviet Union; during interregnum, Jews in outlying towns/villages are murdered by Ukrainians
  
1941
June
Soviets pull out of Tluste amidst incessant air raids; pandemonium and uncertainty reign, as a Ukrainian mayor is installed and settling of accounts begins
73
-75
1941
June
Occupation of Hungarian troops; independent Ukrainian State declared
 
 
1941
End of June / beginning of July
German air/ground offensive, and Soviet retreat from Zalishchyky, 25 km south of Tluste (destroying the railway bridge in the process)
Ch. 2
1941
July
Germans pass through Tluste from two directions (Czortkow and Borszczow), en route to the north and east; a small German force is installed in the town to engage the retreating Soviets
75
1941
July
Killing of Jews/looting of homes in Czortkow, 20 km north of Tluste, perpetrated by German soldiers and Ukrainian collaborators
Ch. 3
1941
Early July
Explosion of railway cars containing arms at Tluste station
67
1941
July
Germans occupy Horodenka; reign of terror begins (anti-Semitic proclamations/deportations)
 
1941
8 July
Germans capture Zalishchyky
 
1941
July-August
German officer becomes military governor of Tluste; organised and systematic persecution begins, in concert with local Ukrainian committee. Nightly curfew is imposed and freedom of movement of Jews is curtailed
75
-76
1941
ca. August
Germans set up a Judenrat (Jewish council) in Tluste under chairmanship of Dr. Aberman, together with a Jewish police force, in order to impose order, persecute the Jewish community and facilitate mass deportations
76
-77
1941
September
Zalishchyky region is occupied and administered by the Hungarian allies of the Germans
Ch. 3
1941
October
Ghetto established in Horodenka
 
1941
 
Forced influx of stateless Jews expelled from Hungary and elsewhere – arriving over a two-week period on columns of trucks under the guard of Hungarian soldiers
79
-80
1941
 
Gestapo headquarters established in Czortkow, from where control over Tluste is exerted
83
1941
 
Anti-Jewish edits issued (imposition of forced labour, wearing of Star of David, restrictions on movement etc.) and periodic Gestapo raids begin, characterised by arrests, searches of houses, beatings/murders, confiscation of property etc
83, 88
1941
Fall
Torrential rains cause Dniester river to overflow its banks near Zalishchyky, 25 km south of Tluste
Ch. 3
1941
November
Mass slaughter of Jews near Zalishchyky
 
1941
December
Mass slaughter of Horodenka Jews at Siemakowce
 

1942-43
1942
12 April
Second 2-day Aktion against Jews at Horodenka
 
1942
Spring/Summer
Jews are sent to labour camps in vicinity of Tluste (many involved in manufacture of synthetic rubber from the plant called kok-saghys)
89
1942
August
First overt major Aktion in Tluste, intended to make up the shortfall in a neighbouring town’s ‘quota’ of Jews to be deported. Judenrat rounds up 300 people, then dispatched to Belzec by train.
97
1942
(approx.)
Tluste’s synagogues are destroyed by the Nazis (the old one, made of wood; and the newer stone one, which had once served as one of the town’s forts)
(2) 
 
1942
September-October
Smaller Aktionen follow repeatedly in Tluste, engendering extortion and climate of fear among the Jewish population and attempts at concealment in hideouts
98
-100
1942
20 September
Germans expel Zalishchyky’s Jews to neighbouring ghettoes, mostly to Tluste
 
1942
September
Third 3-day Aktion against Horodenka Jews; all remaining are forced to leave; town declared Judenfrei
 
1942
October
Second major Aktion in Tluste and nearby villages (unconfirmed report of 1000 Jews deported and more than 200 killed in town)
102
1942
- 43
Winter
Periodic expulsion of Jews from towns, concentration in ghettos. Amidst conditions of congestion and starvation, typhus epidemic breaks out in Tluste ghetto and elsewhere, claiming 6-8 lives daily.
105
-6
1943
12 February
40 Jews shot in Tluste
 
1943
April (Passover)
Gestapo postpones planned Aktion after discovering that nearly all Jews in the Tluste area have (temporarily) dispersed
112
-13
1943
Spring
Camp “W” (for Wehrmacht) is operating 2 km from Tluste, housing Jewish farm labourers from “privileged” families, particularly those close to the Judenrat
114
1943
26-27 May
Third major Aktion in Tluste: Germans and Ukrainian police deploy in the early morning (1:00-2:00 a.m.). Jews are rounded up and led in groups of 100 to the Jewish cemetery, where they are shot and buried in three mass graves. Shooting in town and at the cemetery continues until 2100 in the evening. Total death toll reported to be more than 2,000.
121
-31
1943*
June
Judenverteil (Jewish Quarter) set up in two streets in Tluste, into which remaining Jews are ordered prior to systematic deportations, beginning with refugees from the west and Hungarian Jews.  * There is likely confusion, from the original source, about this date: the Judenverteil was more likely set up in 1941.
89,
135
1943
6 June
Start of final Aktion in Tluste with the aim of purging the town of all Jews, to make it Judenrein. 1000 Jews reported to have been killed or deported.
138
-41

14
1943
Early Summer
Labour camp operating at Lisowse
 
1943
mid-year
By this period, all Zalishchyky Jews have been transferred to work camps in Tluste
 
1943
Late August
Soviet partisans occupy the Czernowogrod area near Tluste; sporadic battles with German forces
181
-84

1944-49
1944
February-March
German flights begin over Czernowogrod/Tluste area, reaching a peak in mid-March. Dogfights in the air. Hungarian and German soldiers retreat.
218
-221
1944
March
Region liberated by the Soviets; Zalishchyky area is recaptured by Germans for a few days, but finally liberated by Soviets on 24 March
 
1944
End March
Soviet army enters Tluste. 200 Jews are said to have survived in labour camps or in hiding.
228
1944
13 April
Tluste again comes under Soviet control
73
1944
mid-April through July
German bombing sorties and aerial reconnaissance are carried out over Tluste, peaking in May (captured in aerial photographs).
 
228
1944
May
Mobilisation of 530 Tluste men to Soviet army
73
1944
Until second half of July
Most of Tluste’s population is evacuated to surrounding towns, as the town is in the front zone
74
1944
mid-year
Most Jews still remaining in Zalishchyky emigrate
 
1944
 
First issue of district newspaper published
 
1945
Autumn
Men of Tluste begin returning home after end of hostilities
77
1945
 
Almost all houses formerly owned by Poles are given to new migrants to Tluste
81
1946
 
Tluste is formally renamed “Tovste”
 
1946
 
Greek Catholic church given the title “People's” church
 
1947
 
Collective farm and machinery station are established
 

1950-70s
1955
 
Old brick factory restored
 
1957
 
New secondary school and gypsum plant are constructed
 
1960
 
Milk plant constructed
 
1962
 
Tovste bus station becomes operational
 
1963
 
Metal processing factory and agricultural vocational training school opened
 
1967
 
Second building of secondary school opened
 
1968
 
Reorganisation of the collective machinery station
 
1973
 
Music school opened
 
1974
 
Reconstruction of metal processing factory into a plastics factory
 
1974
 
New building of post office built
 
1976
 
Construction of first building of Tovste district hospital
 
1977
 
Beginning of construction of new bakery
 

1980-90s
1982
 
Labour-training school opened
 
1985
 
Construction of second building of Tovste district hospital completed
 
1989
 
“Agronom technic” is organised
 
1990
 
Historic museum of Tovste opened under directorship of Jaroslav Pawlyk
 
1991
 
Tovste is part of the newly independent Ukraine
 
1992
  Museum of history receives the honourable title of “People's Museum”  
1995
 
New coat-of-arms for Tovste is prepared by J. Pawlyk
20
-21
1996
4 December
Tovste joins the League of Historic Towns of Ukraine
9
1998
1 January
Population of Tovste stands at 4,100 citizens; school enrolment reaches 729 students and 66 teachers
9, 96

Sources:

1 – Pawlyk, J. History of Tovste. Chortkiv, 2000.

2– Pawlyk, J. Unpublished manuscript.

3 – Siredzhuk, P. Original Sources. Kyiv, 1994.

3a - Siredzhuk, P. pers. comm. July 2001.

4 – Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine, Lviv: Fond 179, Opus 2, Sprava 3383.

5 – Skrzypek, S. The Problem of Eastern Galicia. London, 1948.

6 – Lecker, M. “I Remember: Odyssey of a Jewish Teenager in Eastern Europe”. In: Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies. Vol.5. http://migs.concordia.ca/memoirs/lecker/lecker.html; last accessed on 14 July 2005.

7 – Rosman, M.J. Founder of Hasidism: a quest for the historical Ba’al Shem Tov. Berkeley, 1996.

8 – Stampfer, S. “The 1764 Census of Polish Jewry” in Bar-Ilan / Annual of Bar Ilan University Vol. 24-25.

9 – Special Orts-Repertorien von Galizien. Bearbeitet auf Grund de Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1880. K.K. Statistischen Central Commission. Wien, 1886.

9a – Special Orts-Repertorien von Galizien. Bearbeitet auf Grund de Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1900. K.K. Statistischen Central Commission. Wien, 1907.

10 – International Jewish Cemetery Project: http://www.jewishgen.org/cemetery/e-europe/ukra-t.html; last accessed on 16 August 2005.

11 – Szechter Schneider, T. “A Horodenka Holocaust Memoir”. http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Gorodenka/html/holocaust_memoir.html; last accessed on 9 February 2010.

12 – Pinkas Hakehillot Polin: “Zaleshchiki” - Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Poland, Volume II (Ukraine), pages 195-199. http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/pinkas_poland/pol2_00195.html; last accessed on 18 August 2005.

13 – German Flown Aerial Photography, NWDNC-373-GXPRINTS, 1939-1945. National Archives at College Park, Maryland.

14 – O'Neil, R. Unpublished Manuscript and Introduction: “A Reassessment: Resettlement Transports to Belzec, March-December 1942”. http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/belzec/belzec.html; last accessed 18 August 2005.

15 – Private photo collection of Jan Sas Zubrzycki.

16 – Heppenheimer, Alexander. 300 Years After His Birth the Ba’al Shem Tov’s Legacy Lives On. The Jewish Homemaker: http://www.homemaker.org/shvouot98/cover.html; last accessed in early 2005 (link not available in September 2005).

17 – Balinski, M. Polska Starozytna. tom II. 1846 - cited in Zubrzycki, J.S. Tluste nad Debna w ziemi Czerwonogrodzkiej. Lwow, 1923.

18 – Hryniuk, S. Peasants with Promise: Ukrainians in Southeastern Galicia 1880-1900. Edmonton, 1991.

20 – Milch-Avigal, S. (ed.). Can Heaven be Void? Jerusalem, 2003.